Olive oil polyphenols and oxidative stress
Read the following text and test your understanding on the questions below.
Peptides IPP and VPP help to maintain normal blood pressure
The two peptides that are the subject of the claim are isoleucyl-prolyl-proline (IPP) and valyl-prolyl-proline (VPP) and are formed by fermentation of milk and can be measured using established methods.
Polyphenols from olive have an antioxidant activity that may help maintain healthy LDL cholesterol level and lipid oxidation / antioxidants
Specific polyphenols within olive oil (hydroxyltyrosol) and their derivatives were identified as having the beneficial effect
The protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage.
A number of different studies were included that did not include olive polyphenols and/or did not refer to protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage.
2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in humans were provided that did not include valid measures of the effect (oxidation of LDL particles)
1 large RCT in 6 different countries was provided, which showed a dose-response relationship between the olive oil polyphenols and the health effect.
2 smaller scale RCTs and 2 short-term studies were provided that also showed this effect
A mechanism was proposed by which olive oil polyphenols could have this effect (the incorporation of phenolic compounds from olive oil in LDL particles).
Do you see the benefit in putting this claim on a product?
Do you think consumers would understand the wording of the claim?
What do you understand by ‘characterisation’ in this case? (i.e. What is it in the component of the product that has been identified as having the health effect and has this been sufficiently characterised?)
Do you agree that the effect in question is likely to be beneficial for the general population?
What do you think about the level of evidence provided for the scientific substantiation?
You could consider:
- Were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in humans included
- Were the studies performed with the product/compound of interest?
- Were the measures of the health effect valid?
- Was there a dose-response relationship?
- Was there evidence provided for a mechanism by which the product/component has the effect?
- Randomised controlled trials were included, some of which showed a significant effect of olive oil polyphenol consumption on appropriate markers of LDL peroxidation.
- Some of the included studies compared interventions containing the olive oil polyphenols with suitable placebos.
- Markers of LDL peroxidation were measured in some of the included studies.
- A dose-response relationship was found.
- A mechanism of action was proposed.
Do you think the claim was given a positive opinion?
Yes, the EFSA panel concluded that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage.